Control, Address, Data Bus, Power Supply, Case, Removable Drive, etc

Control, Address, Data Bus, Power Supply, Case, Removable Drive, etc
Tujuan dari UID adalah merancang interface yang efektif untuk sistem perangkat lunak. Efektif artinya siap digunakan, dan hasilnya sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Kebutuhan disini adalah kebutuhan penggunanya.

Pengguna sering menilai sistem dari interface, bukan dari fungsinya melainkan dari user interfacenya. Jika desain user interfacenya yang buruk, maka itu sering jadi alasan untuk tidak menggunakan software.

Selain itu interface yang buruk sebabkan pengguna membuat kesalahan fatal. Saat ini interface yang banyak digunakan dalam software adalah GUI (Graphical User Interface).

Semua pekerjaan dari memory, control unit dan arithmetic and logic unit dihubungkan melalui BUS yaitu jalur utama dalam sirkuit elektronik dimana signal bergerak dari salah satu dari sumber ke salah satu dari tujuan.

Adapun Bus yang dikenal dibedakan menjadi 3 fungsi, yaitu :
  • Control Bus : Jalur satu arah dari control unit untuk tujuan timing dan cotrolling.
  • Address Bus : Jalur satu arah untuk tujuan untuk menemukan alamat dalam memory yang berisi data dan instruksi.
  • Data Bus : Jalur dua arah untuk tujuan melalui mana data mencapai tujuannya.
Power Supply : All electricity enters your PC through this shielded metal box. Inside it, a transformer converts the current that comes from standard outlets into the voltages and current flows needed by various parts of the computer.

All other components, from the motherboard to disk drives, get their power through the main supply via colored wires that end in plastic shielded connectors.

Case : Usually metal, the case, or chassis, is also at times erroneously referred to as the CPU, or central processing unit.

However, the CPU is more properly applied to the microprocessor. The case protects the internal components from dust and damage.

Removable Drive : Removable drives, such as Zip drives, provide larger amounts of removable storage than do floppy drives.

Often, they are not fast enough to run software satisfactorily, but they enable you to archive retired or seldom-used document files and to back up current data.

CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Drive : CD and DVD drives use a laser beam to read data from a spiral of indentation and flat areas on a layer of metallic film. New PCs now feature simply a DVD drive, which also reads CD and musical discs.

The CD holds about 650MB of data. A DVD disc holds about 4.7 gigabytes on each side of the disc. The DVD gets the extra storage by using a narrower laser beam, which writes to two separate layers in the DVD.

Writable CD and DVD drives : Both CD and DVD drives are read-only devices, but each has versions that write to blank CD and DVD discs. Different drives record differently, making it uncertain whether a DVD made on one drive will play on a different drive.

All software today is distributed over the Internet or on CD/DVD.ln combination with writable CD/DVD becoming a standard, this means that the floppy drive will disappear from the PC

Tape Drive : A tope backup drive does not provide the random access required for everyday storage operations. Tope drives are used to inexpen.

Sively bock up large hard drives for security purposes .

Floppy Drive : Here you insert a 3.5-inch floppy disk Most floppy disks hold 1.44 megabytes (MB) of data, the equivalent of 500 pages of typed, unformatted, double-spaced text--o short novel. The floppy drive is the most universal way to move files from one PC to another.

It's also used to make backup copies of files in case something happens to the original files on the hard drive.

Hard Drive : This is the main repository-in the form of magnetic recordings on hard, thin platters--of your programs and the documents on which you work. It also contains the system files that let your computer spring to life.

It is the busiest mechanical port of your computer, with components moving at a blinding speed. IDE Controllers : Usuaily built into the motherboard, two IDE slots provide connections for ribbon cables that send signals controlling the floppy drive, hard drive, and CD-ROM drive.

AGP Expansion Slot : The accelerated graphic port gives graphics cards fast access to the PC's main memory, which is particularly beneficial for displaying 3D graphics

PCI Expansion Slot : These peripheral component interconnect (PCI) expansion slots are designed for cards that use Plug and Play, a hardware design that lets the cards adopt to the PC automatically

Video Card : Translates image information into the varying electrical currents needed to display an image on the monitor

Sound Card : Contains the circuitry for recording and reproducing multi· media sound. This might be an expansion card or come built into a few chips on the motherboard of some computers and attached by cables to external connections for amplified speakers, headphones. Microphone and CD player input

Random Access Memory is a collection of microchips where the computer stores programs and data while it uses them. When the computer is turned off, the contents of RAM are lost

Real-Time Clock : A vibrating crystal in this component is the drummer that sets the pace and synchronizes the work of all the other components

CMOS : This is a special type of memory chip that uses a small battery to retain information about your PC's hardware configuration even while the computer is turned off

BIOS : If the microprocessor is your PC's brains, this is the heart. It is one or two chips that define the personality, or individuality, of your computer.

The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) knows the details of how your PC was put together and serves as an intermediary between the operating software running your computer and the various hardware components

CMOS Battery : Rarely needs changing, but if you ever have to, be sure you have a file backup of the information the CMOS chip contains

Microprocessor : Often called the brains of a computer, the microprocessor or central processing unit (CPU) is a tight, complex collection of transistors arranged so that they can be used to manipulate data.

The processor handles most operations of your computer, the design of which dictates how software must be written to work correctly

Heat Sink : Because microprocessors produce so much heat, a heat sink is used to dissipate the heat so that internal components of the chip don't melt.

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